As a young reader, I was totally confused. If you are interested you can read about my reading issues in a past blog. But more importantly and on topic for today, my comprehension only turned a corner once I slowly came to realize that if I could picture the story in my head, I understood the book or short story much better! NO TEACHER HAD EVER TOLD ME TO DO THAT! I was always told here are the sounds and words, read. Somehow, Puff, Dick, and Jane were supposed to magically make it all come together. It didn’t. Reading was a puzzle that couldn’t come together for me for years and years.
Reading strategies come naturally to good readers, but those are only a portion of the population. I wasn’t in that lucky community of good readers, and none of my teachers ever taught me any reading strategies.
So once the puzzle piece of visualization took form, I had to constantly remind myself to “see” the characters. It was frustrating; I read slowly which often caused me to have to re-read because I missed details. By the way, that is another misconception by many people: Re-reading is not the comprehension cure-all. Sometimes re-reading is useful but not every time. But when I did live through the frustration to find the detail that helped me visualize a character or location, the story started to become real. It was amazing how this picture in my head so quickly impacted my willingness to read. I had no idea that this was what I was supposed to do!
Hence my passion and dedication to teaching all students — regardless of their ability — reading strategies. I cannot emphasize how critical these puzzle pieces are to reading comprehension.
When I work with struggling readers now, they are frequently stumped that visualizing a text is something they should do. Most of my students have no idea what the word means let alone how to go about it. When I suggest that some day it can come naturally to them, they think I’m nuts. So we begin — whether it is grade 6 or 7 or 8 — using markers and paper: Listening to a short text, I read to them and they draw a sketch of what they see in their mind. Students are often worried about their artistic ability. I remind them of our purpose: We are practicing visualizing the text. As a former co-teacher of mine, A. Warner, told me, “It is making mental movies in your head of what you read.”
Visualizing is probably the most powerful puzzle piece; however, the other 13 strategies are just as important. The list can be overwhelming, but little by little I whittle away working with my students to help them learn and apply each one. I have them not only learn the term, but what it means. If they can’t explain it, they can’t use it. We practice the reading strategies over and over with independent and class texts — including defining them so students are clear what they are doing. Some students have already mastered some of the skills so they move on to other strategies. After all, good teachers differentiate for the needs of the student — even when it comes to the use of reading strategies.
So why aren’t reading strategies taught more often? One part of the puzzle is that secondary English teachers are not taught to be “reading” teachers. Reading specialists know to overtly teach reading strategies, but not all students work with the reading specialists. Colleges don’t emphasize reading strategies in methods classes. Take a hint universities; this needs to be added! Many teachers are already good readers. Again, it is true that reading strategies come naturally to good readers — without cognitively working at it, they apply the strategies as they read. However, in my family alone, I estimate one-half to two-thirds are actually good readers — not everyone. I am a self-made good reader. There are more of us out there, but it is a painful journey.
In this new school year, my goal of my second year as a literacy/instructional coach is to help teachers implement reading strategies in their classrooms. A few instructors were willing to do so last year, and they were impressed with the results. It is only with the support of the classroom teachers that students will apply the strategies so frequently that they become ingrained and a natural part of reading. Then the puzzle of reading becomes whole for them too.
The following strategies list is one that I have accumulated over time. I cannot name any one source; I have adapted it multiple times from what I’ve learned from my own experiences and from working with my students.
READING STRATEGIES THAT WORK FOR ALL READERS (with fiction and nonfiction)
- Draw Inferences — Put clues together to figure out what the author means
- Create Visualizations — See the plot or article info in your mind – make mental movies
- Ask Questions — Ask why characters/people act the way they do – ask why author included information in the text
- Determine Importance – Figure out what is important in the story/article and what is not
- Clarify — Be clear about what is going on in the story/article with details & without – Ask am I understanding the story????????? Be sure you know what is going on before reading on. Don’t be confused — be clear!
- Retell and Summarize — Retelling is being able to tell main ideas as well as essential lesser ideas; whereas summarizing is telling just the main ideas of the text
- Construct Connections – Connect to another text including movies, poems, TV, cartoons, books, etc. as well as something heard about, something in friend’s/family’s life (text to text and text to world)
- Monitor and Adjust Comprehension – Pay attention if you understand or not or if you got info wrong, you correct it
- Make Predictions – Decide what you think is going to happen in a book based on info/clues you read – making a hypothesis about the book — then you have to clarify if you have correctly predicted
- Adjust Fluency Rate – Change how fast or slow you read based on what is going on in the book and on your understanding
- Use Vocabulary — Figure out word meanings based on other words & events in story/article (use context clues) without using the dictionary unless you absolutely have to do so
- Chunk phrases – Read phrases and chunks of words at a time — not reading individual words which slows down readers
- Speak with intonation — When reading, read with emotion not like a robot; read as if you are the character speaking
- Analyze and critique — Analyze the author’s writing and why he or she wrote and created the people/scenes as he/she did; critique how the author’s work and words impacts the story